Energy consumption in today’s transport sector is dominated by oil demand to produce gasoline and diesel. The oil products are used for land, rail, sea and air transportation. At 2006 energy consumption for transportation was recorded more than 96% in the form of oil. In addition to oil, the demand for biofuels has also increased despite being small, accompanied by the use of gas for transportation, and electricity to railways.
Europe is expected to increase electricity as a ground transportation energy, supported increased biofuel roles for the land transportation sector and perhaps even air transport. This trend is more driven by climate change considerations, not energy resistance. Nevertheless, this trend will also positively impact energy resilience.
Improved ground transportation energy efficiency can be achieved through several ways, among others is through technology. The application of technology is necessary to reduce energy consumption per kilometer mileage.
Vehicle efficiency can be significantly improved through the application of technology to machines and other parts of the vehicle. Some of these technologies have been applied to passenger vehicles based on the agreement of ACEA (European Automobile Manufacturers ‘ Association), JAMA (Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association), KAMA (Korea Automobile Manufacturers Association), European Commission. The agreement aims to reduce CO2 emissions from vehicles.
The technological alternatives developed for passenger vehicles include gasoline and diesel engine designs. The design focused on improving fuel consumption efficiency include direct injection Otto-cycle, variable valve technology, and smaller engine size. Another technology is stop-start for efficiency of use of the machine if the car is in a stationary state, as well as a variety of hybrid-electric (micro-hybrid, mild hybrid, and full hybrid) technology. Most of these technologies can also be used for lightweight commercial vehicles.
In addition to the development of technology, the energy efficiency of land transportation can also be achieved by vehicles with low energy consumption. In addition it can also be achieved with technical operations to reduce energy consumption per kilometer mileage.